Refractive surgery to correct refractive problems (myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism) has developed significantly in recent years thanks to medical and technological advances and growing expertise in a surgical procedure, whose most widespread technique, LASIK, has just turned 20. Since it first appeared, an extensive range of surgical options to correct refractive errors has been deployed.
Before choosing the best option, a good examination of the eye is essential, since 80% of the success of the surgery depends on a good diagnosis and a correct indication.
Currently, 80% of refractive surgery is performed with an excimer laser, which remodels the cornea by removing very fine layers with a beam of cold ultraviolet light that does not damage the tissue. Around half of these surgical procedures are performed with the LASIK technique, in which the laser is applied to the inside of the cornea. This is done by firstly creating a flap on the surface that enables access to the inner layers of the cornea.
One of the new developments of this technique is the use of another laser called a femtosecond to create the flap. It provides a high degree of regularity on the surface to which the excimer laser is applied and enables the creation of secure flaps on corneas that are very flat, curved or thin, which could not otherwise be operated on with LASIK.